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Questions and Answers

Does anyone have tips for not breaking the bank on Christmas gifts?

I'm not poor but I don't have a lot of extra cash either. I don't know what anyone wants. I want the recipients to like the gift they get from me. Any creative ideas on what to do? Money saving tips? Things I can possibly make for some of the gifts etc?

Posted by Brea
Custer SD

That was a good answer that someone else provided ; gift baskets that you make yourself. They're a lot cheaper than buying pre-mades and more fun and personal.

For smaller gifts that require some wrapping, you can use newspaper to wrap it. It might sound weird, but its actually a nice idea. I bought a bag of cheap gift bows (25 ct. For 99cents) and some fancy ribbons. I wrapped a rectangular gift with foreign newspaper (Chinese newspapers that I got free from local asian bakeries) and decorated it with the ribbon. I took this interpretation of the idea from Martha Stewart, heh!

It would've been great if you started shopping around Black Friday/Cyber Monday. It may be early to some but its an ideal time.

Bow hunting questions?

What kind of compound bow shuld i get for beginner and i am 16 so how do i determin whats the max lb's i can pull from a bow like a 50lb or 60lb and if its 60+ i can pull then should i get a 60-70lb bow so i can set it to the lowest and when i get stronger go up in lb's? Whats better for bow hunting stand or ground hunting and shuld i buy used or new bows? What does it mean when they say let off is ( )% and what else shuld i no?

Posted by fisherman
Custer SD

First of all – the BEST advice I can tell you is to go to a professional Archery shop – not Walmart or Gander Mountain. If you go to a reputable archery dealer they will determine your draw length and what poundage you can handle. Honestly, the majority of the archers that I have met that use 60+ lbs only do so because they can't make a well-placed shot on an animal and they use the sheer force and speed of the arrow to kill the animal instead of a well-placed vital shot. ANYWAY, stand hunting is obviously better because it gets your human scent up off the ground and gives you a better vantage point, but I like the challenge of ground hunting so I don't stand hunt in archery. Buying a used bow is ok, IF and only if you go to a reputable dealer – don't buy a used or new bow online or out of a newspaper or anything! The let off poundage % has to deal with when you come to full draw and the pullies break over how much tension there is to continue to hold the bow at full draw. For example it the bow has 80% let off you will be able to hold that bow at full draw for a longer period of time without needed to apply as much energy to hold the bow (in otherwords 80% of the tension is in the pullies and 20% of the tension is on your shoulder.) Hope this helped you out!

What ever happened to the Herald of Free Enterprise?

It was the ferry that in 1987 capsized because the bow doors were left open. Did the ferry sink and is still down there or was it salvaged. What happened after that.

Posted by Glenn M
Custer SD

This is what i found online hope it helps.

The Disaster

Being a RORO, the Herald had doors at both the bow and stern. In the early evening of March 6, 1987 she capsized in the approaches to the Belgian port of Zeebrugge en route to Dover, England. When the ferry left port, not all the water had been pumped out of the bow ballast tanks, leaving the ship three feet (90 cm) down at the bow. This ballast was necessary to enable the ship to dock with the Zeebrugge linkspan in some tidal conditions (Dover-Zeebrugge was not her usual route). However, the main cause of the tragedy was the failure to close the bow door and, when the ferry had reached 18.9 knots (33 km/h), large quantities of water started to enter the car deck, destroying her stability and causing her to capsize within seconds.

The ship had a crew of 80 and was carrying 459 passengers, 81 cars, 3 buses, and 47 trucks. She capsized about 90 seconds after leaving the harbour, ending on her side half-submerged in shallow water just 100 yards (90 m) from the shore. Only a fortuitous turn to starboard in her last moments, and then capsizing onto a sandbar, prevented the ship from sinking entirely in much deeper water.

The disaster resulted in the death of 193 people. Many of those on board had taken advantage of a promotion in The Sun newspaper for cheap trips to the continent. Most of the victims were trapped inside the ship and succumbed to hypothermia because of the frigid (3 °C) water. It was not until the end of April 1987 that the ferry was refloated. The disaster brought the highest death toll of any British vessel in peacetime since the sinking of the Iolaire in 1919.

The Inquiry

After a public inquiry into the sinking in July 1987, Britain's Lord Justice Sheen published a report that castigated Townsend Thoresen, the ship's owners as part of the P&O Group, and identified a "disease of sloppiness" and negligence at every level of the corporation's hierarchy. It was confirmed that the ferry left port with her bow doors open.

They found after talking to crew members that the crew member responsibile for shutting the doors was Mark Stanley, but when he finished cleaning the car deck after the arrival in Zeebrugge, he had had a small break. It was discovered from interviewing crew members that Stanley was not on the car deck before the ship set sail. When he was questioned, investigators found that at the time when he should have closed the doors, he was still asleep during his break. There was confusion as to why no one else closed the doors. The other crew members expected Stanley to close the doors due to the fact that he was scheduled to close them. Before the ship set sail the First Officer should have stayed on the car deck to make sure the doors were closed, but trying to stay on schedule he left the car deck and went to the bridge before the doors were closed. This was normal practice, and the final problem was that from the position from the bridge, the captain was not able to see the bow doors clearly, leading him to believe that they were closed because no one said they were open.

However, even with the bow doors open, the mystery was not solved. A few years earlier, one of the Herald's sister ships sailed from Dover to Zeebrugge, but she made it to the destination without incident. It was believed that leaving the bow doors open alone should not have caused the ship to capsize.

After looking at possible reasons for reduced clearance between the doors and water line, investigators found that there was a problem during the loading of the car decks. The loading ramp at Zeebrugge was too short to reach the upper car deck. To clear the gap, the captain put sea water into the ballast tanks to lower the ship, but forgot to release the water afterwards. The clearance between bow doors and water line was 2.5 metres.

There was one more factor: when a ship sails, the movement under it creates low pressure, which sucks the bow downwards. In deep water the effect is small. However, in shallow water it is greater, because as the water goes underneath, it moves faster dragging the bow down more. This reduced the clearance between the bow doors and water line to 1.5 metres. Although the bow doors were open and they were 1.5 metres above the water, it was still not enough to cause the ship to capsize, so the investigators looked at the bow waves and the amount of water they produce.

After extensive tests, the investigators found that when the ship travelled at a speed of 18 knots, the wave was enough to engulf the bow doors. This caused a 'step change': if the ship was below 18 knots and not in shallow water, people on the car deck would probably have had time to notice the bow doors were open and closed them, but even this did not cause the final capsizing.

Almost all ships are divided into water tight captments below the water line so that in the event of flooding, the water would only be confined to one compartment thus keeping the ship afloat. The Herald's design was a huge open car deck with no dividers, allowing vehicles to drive in and out easily, but this allowed water to flood the whole of the car deck, putting the ship in danger.

Water began flowing onto the car deck and the vessel quickly became unstable. In October 1987, a coroner's inquest jury into the capsizing returned verdicts of unlawful killing. Many of the individuals involved at the company were prosecuted for manslaughter, as was the operating company, P&O Ferries (Dover) Ltd. (for a discussion of the legal issues, see corporate manslaughter). The disaster was one of a number that influenced thinking leading to the Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998.

The Aftermath

A few scenes of the disaster videotaped live by the media were used by film director Krzysztof Kieślowski as part of the conclusion of his film Three Colours: Red that bound together the Three Colors trilogy.

In Britain, a group named Ferry Aid released a charity record.

Following the sinking, the Herald was raised and renamed "Flushing Range" for a final one-way trip to Alang, India, where she was broken up in 1988. Her two sister ships are still operational, though the ex-Spirit of Free Enterprise was extended to increase her cargo capacity during her time under the P&O flag in a process commonly described as jumboisation. The Pride of Free Enterprise is still more or less as built.

The Right Hon Nicholas Ridley MP, a government minister at the time, was criticised a few days later for his entirely crass remarks on an unrelated subject. He was quoted as saying that in pursuing a particular policy he would, however, not be sailing with his bow doors open. He did apologise for this.


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